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Highlights of History B.C.E.


Highly recommended by Bill Gates

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After getting in touch with award-winning Professor David Christian — a pioneer of this ground-breaking academic discipline — Gates started down the path to bring Big History to schools across the country. Course #8050 Big History


13,700,000,000 B.C.E. – IN THE BEGINNING


Even if you subscribe to the notion of the God Particle, you still have to ponder from whence it came and whither it goest.

4,400,000 B.C.E. – Hominid

First hominid evolves in East Africa.

3,500,000 B.C.E. – Lucy

Hominid ‘Lucy’ dies in Ethiopia, where her complete skeleton will one day be found.

2,500,000 B.C.E. – Homo habilis

First hominid species considered human, Homo habilis evolves in Africa.

2,000,000 B.C.E. – Ice Age

The Ice Age begins.

1,800,000 B.C.E. – Homo Erectus

First human species to leave Africa, Homo erectus begins migrating to Asia and later Europe.

1,600,000, B.C.E. – Fire

First evidence of the use of fire by humans in Africa.

300,000 B.C.E. – Archaic Sapiens

Humans sharing characteristics of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens appear. Known as archaic

sapiens, they may be the ancestors of Neanderthals.

200,000 B.C.E. – Homo Sapiens Rhodesiensis

100,000 B.C.E. – Homo Sapiens

Homo Sapiens, or modern humans, are living in Africa and begin migrating to other parts of the world.

30,000 B.C.E. – Neanderthals Disappear

Neanderthals disappear, and Homo Sapiens continue to spread across the earth.

20,000 B.C.E. – Land Bridge

Ice Age reaches its peak, exposing land bridge from Siberia to North America.

10,000 B.C.E. – Ice Age Ends

The Ice Age ends and the earth grows warmer. Homo sapiens make the revolutionary leap from hunter-gatherers to farming, domesticating plants and animals. The resulting surplus food means being able to establish permanent dwellings and storehouses. The settlement develops and populations grow. Stone and wooden tools are used in food preparation, Prosperity leads to security concerns and the developments of weapons and a warrior class.

8,000 B.C.E. – The Agricultural Revolution

The world’s first known permanent settlements are founded in the Fertile Crescent (from Iraq to Egypt). The regular flooding of the great rivers, the Tigris, Euphrates, Jordan and Nile create fertile lands perfect for the cultivation of wheat, barley, lentils and peas. The domestication of sheep, goats, cattle and pigs feeds a burgeoning population.

The world’s oldest known settlement, Jericho, is founded in the Jordan Valley.

World population is estimated at 5 million.

7,000 B.C.E. – Trade

There is extensive trade in surplus foods and transfer of knowledge between the growing settlements in the Fertile Crescent.

Catal Huyuk, the first walled town with irrigated crops, rather than a scattered collection of huts, is founded in Turkey.

Pottery is an important invention for the storage of food.

5,500 B.C.E. – Towns

Large towns are flourishing in the world’s great river basins, the Tigris and Euphrates (the Middle East), the Nile (North Africa), the Indus (southern Asia) and the Yellow River (eastern Asia).

6,000 B.C.E. – Beer

Evidence of beer production and fermentation process.

5,000 B.C.E. – The Wheel

Sumerians invent the wheel, man’s greatest invention and still is in widespread use.

The weavers loom is invented.

The first city-state is founded between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Mesopotamia.

4,500 B.C.E. – The Cart

The cart is invented pulled by oxen or donkey.

4,400 B.C.E. – Horses

The first horses are domesticated.

4,000 B.C.E. – The Plow

In Mesopotamia (the Tigris-Euphrates river valley), the plow is invented, greatly increasing crop output. Advances in food production causes a huge spike in population growth.

3,760 B.C.E. – First Year of the Jewish calendar

3,600 B.C.E. – Bronze Age

Sumerian civilization mix tin with copper to invent a new harder metal – bronze.

Molten bronze can be poured onto molds improving tool and weapon making.

3,500 B.C.E. – Sumer Civilization

Sumer civilization begins in Mesopotamia with city-states ruled by kings worshiped as gods.

Trade and warfare between them spurs great leaps in technology, such as the potter’s wheel.

Sumerians develop a complex society featuring urban areas built around temple complexes presided over by priests.

3,300 B.C.E. – Writing

Sumerians begin to develop a writing system inscribed on clay tablets called cuneiform script, the first known system of writing,

3,118 B.C.E. – Egyptians

King Narmer from Upper Egypt conquers Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta), unifying the country and establishing the capital at Memphis.

The sail is invented in Egypt, increasing travel and the transfer of knowledge.

3,100 B.C.E. – Abacus

The abacus is invented.

Sumerians and Egyptians develop number systems, mathematics, and astronomy.

3,000 – 2975 B.C.E. – Pharaoh Aha (Menes)

The lands of Upper and Lower Egypt are united by Aha (Menes) becoming the first pharaoh.

The Egyptians invent hieroglyphics with pictures representing words, syllables and sounds.

Egyptians brew beer.

World population estimate: 14 million

2,950 B.C.E. – Nubian Kush Civilization

Nubian Kush culture in northern Sudan. The earliest known black African civilization develops on the upper Nile River, trading gold, ivory and ebony with Egypt.

2,900 B.C.E. – Glass

Powerful city-states ruled by dynasties emerge in Sumer.

Sumerians invent glass making.

Sumerian mathematicians divide the day into 24 hours and hours into 60 minutes.

Chinese invent silk.

2,579 B.C.E. – The Pyramid

First Wonder of the Ancient World and the only one still standing.

The largest (covering 13 acres) and tallest stone structure in the world for more than 4,000 years, the Great Pyramid at Giza in Lower Egypt, is built by the Pharaoh Cheops or Khufu, 2,579 -2,556 B.C.E. using cut stone.

The process of cutting stone involved an iron saw, a jig and sand. The large block of stone placed under the jigs holding the saw square. The saw scribes a groove across the surface of the stone into which sand is poured. The rapid movement of the saw back and forth abrades the stone in a smooth predictable manner. The two freshly cut edges mate cleanly when joined together.

2,500 B.C.E. – Sumerian Empire

King Ur unites the warring tribes between the fertile lands between the two great rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates, in the Land of Sumer.

The invention of the ‘shaduf’, a long wooden pole with a weight at one end and bucket on the other makes watering crops easier.

The wealth of Sumerian cities makes them important trade centres.

Prince Gilgamesh, ruler of Uruk builds mud-brick ziggurats, step terraced temples.

Royal burials at Sumerian city-states of Ur include human sacrifices.

King Sargon of Akkad Conquers Sumer in 2,334 B.C.E.

2,450 B.C.E. – Harappans

The Harappan civilization develops in the Indus Valley as trade flourishes and cities emerge.

2,400 B.C.E. – Bronze Age

The technique of making bronze reaches Northern Europe.

2,334 B.C.E. – Mesopotamia Empire

King Sargon of Akkad conquers Sumer and goes on to forge the first Mesopotamia empire.

2,150 B.C.E. – Egypt, First Intermediate Period

Drought disrupts the seasonal flooding of the Nile, destabilizing the Old Kingdom and leading to a century of unrest known as the First Intermediate Period.

The Egyptians invert paper, using the papyrus plant.

2,100 B.C.E. – Abraham / Ibrahim

“As for me, behold my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations.” God, Genesis 17:4

2,000 B.C.E. – Time

The Egyptians invent the shadow clock. A wood device with a crossbar which casts a shadow on a measured beam pointed east in the morning and west in the afternoon.

The 365 day year is established by the Egyptians. The missing quarter day per year would confound accurate dating of Egyptian antiquities.

Looms are used in Egypt. Only the Pharaoh and top officials are allowed to wear clothes of the finest linen. Linen is made from the fibers of flax. The mucilaginous seed of flax yields linseed oil.


1,999 B.C.E. – Beer Recipe

1,975 B.C.E. – Egypt, Middle Kingdom

Egypt is unified by rulers from Thebes, ushering in the Middle Kingdom.

1,960 B.C.E. – Nubia

Troops invade Nubia, extending Egypt’s frontier south from the First Cataract of the Nile th the Second Cataract.

1,950 B.C.E. – Minoan Civilization

Minoan civilization emerges on Crete as rulers accumulate wealth through maritime trade in the Mediterranean. Palace building begins with this wealth.

The Minoan society is very prosperous, with the world’s first ‘leisure society’. Indoor plumbing and flush toilets.

1.930 – The Bronze Age

Europe’s Bronze Age begins

1,925 B.C.E. – End of Harappan Civilization

Harappan civilization declines and cities are abandoned.

1.900 B.C.E. – The Beaker People

The Beaker people settle in the British Isles.

1,800 B.C.E. – Hittites

The Hittites attack and plunder Babylon.

1,799 B.C.E. – Jebus

The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem).

1,792 B.C.E. – Babylonian Empire

The Babylonians have conquered and assimilated the Akkadian Empire. King Hammurabi takes power in Babylon. unites his kingdom and embarks on conquests establishing the first Babylonian Empire.

Babylonians develop multiplication tables., invent the the first windmills to pump water for irrigation, and create the world’s first written laws.

1,750 B.C.E. – Code of Hammurabi.

Hammurabi institutes his 281 laws of order providing the first of all legal systems defining criminal law and the laws of inheritance carved into an eight foot high stone column. The laws are numbered from #1 to #282 because there is no law #13.

1,740 B.C.E. – Stonehenge


Groundwork laid for Stonehenge near Salisbury, Wiltshire, England. The giant “sarsen” stones weigh 25 tons.

1,700 B.C.E. – Syria

Hittite attacks on Syria.

1,630 B.C.E. – Hyksos

The Pharaohs lose to the Hyksos (rulers of desert uplands) invaders taking over the Nile Delta using horse drawn chariots, ending the Middle Kingdom and inaugurating the Second Intermediate Period.

1,628 B.C.E. – Explosion of Thera

Massive volcanic eruption on Thera causes earthquakes and volcanic ash falls on Crete. The island of Thera explodes creating a tidal wave of 150 feet. The Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete is devastated.

1,610 B.C.E. – Phoenicians

Phoenicians develop a phonetic alphabet based on characters representing sounds rather than objects or concepts. It is the basis of our modern alphabet.

1,600 B.C.E. – Mycenaean Civilization

Mycenaean civilization arises at the southern end of the Greek mainland, where rulers construct hilltop fortresses and are buried with treasure acquired through trade. the Mycenaean people are using the writing called Linear A in their great civilization.

1,595 B.C.E. – Hittite Empire

Hittites sack Babylon ending the Babylonian Empire.

Their homeland is in Anatolia (Turkey).

1,550 B.C.E. – Egypt, New Kingdom

Theben kings launch a campaign against the Hyksos, leading to the reunification of Egypt and the rise of the New Kingdom, with its capital at Thebes.

1,500 B.C.E. – Valley of the Kings

Pharaoh Thutmosis forges an Egyptian empire extending from the Forth Cataract in Nubia to Syria.

Three generations of pharaohs rise to power in Egypt. Thutmosis is the first to have his tomb cut into the rocks of the Valley of the Kings on the west bank of the river Nile opposite the capital city of Thebes.

The earliest known medical textbook is written in Egypt.

1,490 B.C.E. – The Aryans

Aryans infiltrate the Indus Valley from the north and take control of the region, imposing a class system in which Aryan chieftains and priests occupy the top rank.

The Vedas, four collections of hymns that will become part of the basis for Hinduism, are written in India.

1,479 – 1,458 B.C.E. – Queen Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut, Queen of Egypt builds a temple in honour of her reign. She was one of the first female rulers of Egypt.

Egypt conquers Israel and Syria, and becomes an empire.

1,450 B.C.E. – Anatolia

The Hittites invade Anatolia (Turkey). Their empire now stretches from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf.

1,440 – Minoan Civilization Ends

Mycenaeans take control of Crete, bringing Minoan civilization to an end.

1,400 B.C.E. – Greek Civilization

Mycenae warriors from Crete invade Greece. Their settlements develop into the Greek civilization.

On Crete, Linear B script is being used forming the early Greek written language.

1,397 – 1,388 B.C.E. – Tuthmosis the Fourth

Pharaoh Tuthmosis marries a princess from Mitanni (Syria) ending years of war between Egypt and Mesopotamia.

1,388 – 1,351 B.C.E. – Amenophis the Third

Pharaoh Amenophis the Third proposes the of singularity in god. Monothiesism would rise and fall on the reign of his son Amenophis the Fourth.

1,351 – 1,334 B.C.E. – Pharaoh Amenophis the Fourth (Akhenaten)

‘Splendid you rise in heaven’s lightland, O living Aten, creator of life… Your rays embrace the lands to the limits of all that you made.’ – Hymn to Aten Pharaoh Akhenaten ‘ the Sun King’ of Egypt introduces a new religion with only one god. Monotheism in Egypt dies along with Pharaoh Akhenaten in 1,353 B.C.E. and all evidence of his new religion is virtually eradicated.

Revolutionary artworks displayed realistic human traits and scenes from family life rather than the self indulgent militaristic victory works produced before Akhenaten…and after.

1,352 B.C.E. – Queen Nefertiti

The Queen of Egypt and wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten. Step-mother to Tutenkhamen

1,333 – 1,323 B.C.E. – Pharaoh Tutankhamen

1,300 – Hittites

The Hittites (in Turkey) develop iron smelting, improving tools and weaponry – the Near Eastern Iron Age begins.

1,292 – 1,290 B.C.E. – Pharaoh Ramesses the First

Beginning of the 19th Dynasty

1,290 – 1,279 B.C.E. – Pharaoh Sety the First

1,279 – 1,213 – B.C.E. – Pharaoh Ramesses the Second

One of the greatest Pharaohs to rule Egypt.

Memphis the royal city.

1,250 B.C.E. – Trojan War

Walled city of Troy is destroyed by the Greeks or Mycenaeans, ending the Trojan Wars.

1,235 B.C.E. – Athens

Athens is founded.

1,225 B.C.E. – Moses and the Ten Commandments

“Ye have seen what I did to the Egyptians, and how I bare you on eagles’ wings, and brought you unto myself.” GOD, Exodus 19 : 4

Moses leads the Hebrew slaves out of Egypt.

The Ten Commandments are codified.

“Yahwey!” “I AM!” With these words God reveals himself to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of blinding light from a burning bush and delivers the laws of the Ten Commandments. “I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.

  1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me.
  2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and forth generation of them that hate me; and shewing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.
  3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.
  4. Remember the Sabbath day and keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work: but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God : in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor your son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates: For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day, and hallowed it.
  5. Honour your father and thy mother: that the days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.
  6. Thou shalt not kill.
  7. Thou shalt not commit adultery.
  8. Thou shalt not steal.
  9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbor.
  10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbor’s.

Exodus 20:2;17


1,220 B.C.E. – End of Hittite Empire

Hittite homeland in Anatolia (Turkey) is overrun by invaders, ending the Hittite Empire.

1,200 B.C.E. – Phoenicians

The sea faring ancestors of the Lebanese, their fame derived from the purple dye extracted from the glands of the shellfish, Murex trunculus. It took 10,000 shellfish to produce a single gram of purple dye used to stain purple the robes of royalty.

1,150 B.C.E. – Decline of Mycenaean Civilization

Mycenaean civilization declines.

1,100 B.C.E. – Hebrew Bible

The first books of the Hebrew Bible are written.

1,070 B.C.E. – Third Intermediate Period

New Kingdom ends and Egyptian power declines; rulers of foreign origin often control all or part of the country.

Iron smelting begins in Mesopotamia.

1,050 B.C.E. – Aryan Empire

Aryan chieftains expand their domain from the Indus Valley into the Ganges River Valley.

World population estimate: 50 million

1,020 – 1,000 B.C.E. – King Saul

Saul becomes first king of Israel and is defeated by Philistines.

1,000 – 961 B.C.E. – King David

‘Do good in thy good pleasure unto Zion: build thou the walls of Jerusalem.’ – King David; Miserere, Psalm 51

The shepherd-muse, David, didn’t cower from the Philistine giant, but with cunning and a sling, slew the mighty Goliath. Whereupon he entered the palace of the king, Saul, and was adopted as his son and heir.

Second king of Judah and Israel. David, 1040- 972 B.C.E.

993 B.C.E. – City of David

King David attacks and captures Jerusalem. Jerusalem becomes the City of David and capital of the Kingdom of Israel.

Two triangles overlapping, one pointing to the heavens and on pointing to earth, interlocking into a six pointed star. The symbol of a people returning from exile, victory over the Philistines and the pride of nationhood representing a renewed covenant with God. The Star of David.

961 – 931 B.C.E. – King Solomon

Third king of Israel noted for Wisdom. The son of King David and Bethsheba.

King Solomon builds the Yahwey Temple in Jerusalem as a Jewish spiritual centre.

970 B.C.E. – Cedars of Lebanon

Phoenicians established trading centre at Tyre (Lebanon). Their maritime prowess establishes trade with Egypt transporting the cedars of Lebanon.

967 B.C.E. – First Temple of Jerusalem

King Solomon builds the First Temple in Jerusalem.

937 B.C.E. – Rehoboam

Jerusalem becomes the capital of the southern Kingdom of Judah led by Rehoboam after the split of the United Monarchy of Israel.

922 – 721 – Divided Kingdom

Palestine divides into Israel in the north and Judah in the south.

912 B.C.E. – Assyrians Empire

And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be the mighty one in the earth.

Assyrians in northern Mesopotamia (Iraq) begin imperial expansion.

900 B.C.E. – Cyprus

Wealthy Phoenician city-states along the eastern rim of the Mediterranean (Lebanon) send out merchant fleets and establish trading posts that evolve into colonies. Phoenicians settle in Cyprus.

901 B.C.E. – Etruscans

Etruscans settle in northern Italy.

814 B.C.E. – Carthage

The Phoenicians found the city of Carthage in Tunisia on the North African coast, emerging as the primary trade centre in the Mediterranean for the next 400 years.

800 B.C.E. – Homer

The Greek poet Homer writes the Illiad and the Odyssey, legends of the Trojan War.

776 B.C.E. – Olympic Games

The first Olympic games are held at the foot of Mount Olympus in Greece.

755 B.C.E. – Illiad and Odyssey

The approximate time of the writing of the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer in Greece.

753 B.C.E. – Romulus and Remus

Romulus and Remus were the sons of Mars, the god of war. They were left as infants to die by the Tiber river. Twins were left by local custom that one may die and the stronger of the two be nurtured to manhood. As adults, Romulus and Remus argued over which hills to build the city on. A fight to the death ensued, Romulus won.

Roma was built on the Palatine hill at the ford crossing the River Tiber. The groundwork of building, what would become, the world’s mightiest city was begun. As Roma prospered, Rome would come to dominate the neighboring tribes, the Sabines and the Latins.

740 – 700 B.C.E. – Isaiah the Prophet

“Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.” Isaiah 7:14

730 B.C.E. – Nubians

Nubians (black Africans from northern Sudan) conquer Egypt; their leaders become pharaohs and rule the country for several decades until Assyrians take control.

725 B.C.E. – The Alphabet

A new, simpler Phoenician alphabet consisting sixteen characters used by the Phoenicians.

Prince Cadmus, son of the king of Tyre, is attributed with its spread throughout the Mediterranean world when he searches for his sister, Princess Europa, who has been abducted by the king of the Gods of Mount Olympus, Zeus. But their true legacy was the simplified alphabet with 22 letters; the source of the English alphabet.

722 B.C.E. – Sargon the Second

Samaria, the capital city of the Kingdom of Israel, falls to the Assyrians under Sargon the second who expels the Jewish people (the basis for the legendary lost tribes of Israel.

The population is supplanted by Assyrians who mate with local inhabitants producing followers of the Torah called Samaritans, loathed by displaced orthodox Jews.

720 B.C.E. – Musical Notation.

Musical notation is first used in India.

712 B.C.E. – Siege of Jerusalem

The Assyrians lay an unsuccessful siege on Jerusalem.

King Hezekiah builds the Pool of Siloam tunnel in order to supply the Gihon Spring water to the city.

701 B.C.E. – Sennacherib

Assyrian leader Sennacherib lays siege to Jerusalem the capital city of Judah. 185,000 men in Sennacherib army are slain by an angel according to Sennacherib’s own account.

700 B.C.E. – Etruscan Civilization

Greek colonists settle on the coasts of Sicily and southern Italy, while Etruscan civilization develops in northern Italy.

690 B.C.E. – The Upandiashads

Indian teachers interpret Aryan beliefs ion scriptures called the Upandishads, which form the basis of Hinduism.

683 B.C.E. – Archons

Athens replaces hereditary kings with Archons, chief magistrates.

660 B.C.E. – Money

Greeks use standardized coins, initiating the concept of government sanctioned money to be used in trade.

639 B.C.E. – Assyrian Empire

The Babylonian empire is conquered by the Assyrian Empire in 639 B.C.E. and in turn is defeated by the Persian empire in 539 B.C.E.

624 – 547 B.C.E. – Thales

Thales, statesman, astronomer and mathematician, regarded as the first Greek philosopher. He suggested sailors navigate by Ursa Minor, which contains the North Star and professed that everything was ultimately made of water.

625 B.C.E. – Cloaca Maxima

Etruscan engineers drain the marshy ground under what will to be the Roman Forum to make the famous sewer, the Cloaca Maxima.

612 B.C.E. – Babylonian Empire

Babylonians defeat Assyrians and seize control of their empire.

The first d.phpora (Gk; dispersion, scattering) was the Babylonian Exile of 612 B.C.E.



610 – 545 B.C.E. – Anaximander

Anaximander, Greek philosopher, proposed the universal element to be ‘apeiron’, nothingness out of which certain qualities, like hot or cold, wet or dry, could be extracted. He also suggested humans evolved from fishlike creatures.

602 B.C.E. – Zoroaster

Zoroasterism is founded by Zoroaster in Persia. It is the first monotheistic religion and the first to define the concepts of good and evil.

601 B.C.E. – Lao Tzu

Taoism is founded by Lao Tzu in China.

600 B.C.E. – Sparta

Lycurgus lays down the laws of Sparta.

599 B.C.E. – King Nebuchadnezzar the Second

598 B.C.E. – Hanging Gardens of Babylon

Second Wonder of the Ancient World. Nebuchanezzar starts building the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (Baghdad) for his wife, Amyitis, who was homesick for the mountains of her native land. Watered from the nearby Euphrates River.

597 B.C.E. – King Jehoiachin.

The Assyrians are conquered by the Babylonians under King Nebuchadnezzar the Second. The Babylonians destroy Jerusalem in three waves of attacks and its inhabitants carried off into captivity, including the young King Jehoiachin.

Fall of Judah, the southern kingdom, destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem.

596 B.C.E. – Democracy

World’s first democratic constitution is established in Athens, Greece.

586 B.C.E. – King Zedekiah

In Jerusalem, King Zedekiah, who had been placed on the throne by Babylonian Emperor Nebuchadnezzer, rebelled against his overlord. The Emperor recaptured Jerusalem and killed Zedekiah’s entire family in front of him. Then plucked out the miserable Zebediah’s eyes that would be the last thing he ever saw.

Nebuchanezzar burns Solomon’s Temple and destroys the city’s walls.

580 – 500 B.C.E. – Pythagoras

Pythagoras, Greek philosopher, declared everything in the universe was fundamentally mathematical.

563 B.C.E. – Siddhartha Gautama

Prince Siddhartha Gautama is born at the foothills of the Himalayas east of the Ganges. Later becoming the Buddha, the Enlightened One, founder of one of the world’s great religions.

558 – 529 B.C.E. – Cyrus the Great

“I entered Babylon as a friend and… I established the seat of the government in the palace of the ruler under jubilation and rejoicing… My numerous troops walked around in Babylon in peace, I did not allow anybody to terrorize… I brought relief to their dilapidated housing, putting an end to their main complaints… I am Cyrus, king of the world, great king, legitimate king, king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king of the four rims of the earth…” – Cyrus the Great Cyrus the Great, first ruler of the Achaemenid dynasty, reigns over Persia. During his rule he conquers Asia Minor and Babylon. Zoroastrianism is its main religion.

555 B.C.E. – Temple of Artemis

Third Wonder of the Ancient World built in the ancient city of Ephesus (Turkey). The most beautiful structure on earth.

Built by King Croesus, the marble Temple of Artemis at Ephesus with pillars of gold and four bronze statues of Amazons (women warriors) and Artemis’ faithful followers. Artemis, goddess of the moon often depicted as a huntress, was the daughter of Zeus and sister to the sun god, Helios.

Destroyed by fire in 356 B.C.E., rebuilt and destroyed again in Christian times as a pagan site.

551 B.C.E. – Confucius

Confucius is born in China’s Lu province. The collection of precepts of right behavior written down by his followers is known as the ‘Analects’. Confucianism was China’s oldest and strongest religion until Mao Zedong tried unsuccessfully to eradicate the philosophy in 1949. Confucius’s principles are still widely practiced today, in both government and private lives.

550 B.C.E. – Athens

Athens and other city-states on the Greek mainland become centers of learning and artistry and undergo political ferment.

540 – 480 B.C.E. – Heraclitus

Heraclitus, Greek philosopher, defined the universe in terms of opposites, ‘what’s hot without cold and happiness without sorrow. Forerunner of Sir Isaac Newton’s ‘For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction’.

539 B.C.E. – Persian Empire

Beginning of the Persian Empire with Cyrus the Great of Persia (Iran) conquering Babylon (Iraq).

538 B.C.E. – Return from Exile

The Persians conquer Babylon and release the Hebrews from captivity. Many return to Israel and Judah.

537 B.C.E. – Cyrus the Great

Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, “To Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him;” – Isaiah 45:1

King Cyrus the Great allows the Israelites to return from the Babylonian captivity and rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. The first wave, led by Sheshbazzar, repatriates and reestablishes sacrificial worship on the site of the destroyed Temple. The second wave, led by Zerubbabel, the appointed governor of Judah and the high priest Joshua, son of Jehozadak.

522- 486 B.C.E. – Persian Empire

Darius rules Persia and extends the boundaries of the Persian Empire to the Indus valley.

520 B.C.E. – Zechariah the Prophet

“Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation: lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.” Zechariah. Prophesying Palm Sunday and Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem.

516 B.C.E. – Darius the Great

The Second Temple of Jerusalem is built on the sixth year of Darius the Great.

510 B.C.E. – The Tarquins

The Etruscan dynasty of the Tarquins are expelled and a republic established, with power concentrated in patrician hands.

509 B.C.E. – The Roman Republic

The last king of Rome, Lucius Superbus (the Proud) dies and the Romans drive the Etruscans out of Rome. Establishing the Roman Republic largely based on Athenian Democracy. Europe’s Iron Age begins.

495 – 429 B.C.E. – Pericles

Pericles rules Athens after successfully leading the Athenians in war.


490 – 430 B.C.E. – Empedocles

Empedocles, Greek philosopher, the father of rhetoric and medicine claimed he was a god. His philosophy gave us the four elements, earth, air, fire, and water, from which everything was supposed to be made, in varying amounts. An idea which would be believed for two thousand years.

490 – 421 B.C.E. – Protagoras

Protagoras, Greek philosopher and ‘Sophist’. His proposition that there was no objective truth, everything had to be viewed through its relationship with man. To quote, “Man is the measure of all things.” His flagrant moral relativism was not popular and he was expelled from Athens.

490 B.C.E. – Battle of Marathon

The Persian wars begin when Greek cities on the Ionian coast expel their Persian overlords. Over the next two decades, Persian emperors Darius and Xerxes fight repeated battles against Greek allies on land and sea, with the Persians eventually retreating.

The 10,000 Greek army was outnumbered by more than two to one. The Greek general Miltiades ordered Pheidippides to run the 100 miles to the Spartan camp for reinforcements but the Spartans would be delayed due to religious reasons. Pheidippides ran back to give Miltiades the bad news. Undaunted Meltiades wages war. A brilliant manoeuvre surrounding the larger Persian force. The Greeks lose 192 men to the Persians 6,000 who retreat to their ships. The Spartans arrive later that day.

Pheidippides is sent to deliver the good news to Athens, 26 miles away. Upon arrival he proclaimed “Nike!” (victory) and then collapsed and died.

485 B.C.E. – King Xerxes of Persia

Xerxes (Biblical Ahasuerus) becomes Persian king. Marries Esther and orders his advisor Haman executed, saving the Jewish people from Haman’s conspiracy and possible annihilation.

480 B.C.E. – The Battle of Thermopylae

King Leonidas and three hundred Spartan soldiers fight to the death against thousands of King Xerxes’ Persian soldiers.

480 B.C.E. – The Buddha

Death of Buddha at age 70.

479 B.C.E. – Confucius

Death of Confucius Chin, at the age of 72 in China. Persians capture and destroy Babylon.

477 B.C.E. – The Fabii

Legendary deaths of 306 vastly outnumbered Roman Fabii in battle with Etruscan forces.

478 B.C.E. – The Oracle at Delphi

Temple of Apollo at Delphi.

477 B.C.E.

Foundation of the Delian League, an alliance of city-states led by Athens.

469 – 399 B.C.E. – Socrates

Birth of Socrates.


465 B.C.E. – King Artaxerxes

Assassination death of Xerxes, King of Persia from 485 B.C.E. Succeeded by his son, Artaxerxes.

460 B.C.E. – Temple of Zeus

Fourth Wonder of the Ancient World. The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, original site of the Olympic Games in Greece featuring a 40 foot high statue of Zeus sitting on his throne. The body of the enormous statue was of ivory and his beard, robe and sandals were of gold. His throne was also of gold encrusted with precious stones. Destroyed by fire in 462 C.E.

460 – 445 B.C.E.- First Peloponnesian War

Sparta versus Athena

460 – 370 B.C.E. – Democritus

Democritus, Greek Philosopher, was, along with his mentor Leucippus, an ‘atomist’ – a proponent of the idea that everything we see is made of countless little bits of matter we can’t see, and these little bits were ultimately indivisible.

458 B.C.E. – Ezra

Ezra, Hebrew scribe, leads 1,800 Jews from Babylonia to Jerusalem to restore the laws of Moses. Ezra builds the Wall of Jerusalem with Nehemiah.

456 B.C.E. – Aeschylus

Death of Aeschylus, the founder of Greek tragedy.

451 B.C.E. – The Laws of Solon

Three Roman senators sent to Athens to study the laws of Solon.

450 B.C.E. – The Twelve Tables

The Decemvirs codify Roman Law in the publication of the law code contained in the Twelve Tables.

Temple of Theseus at Athens.

449 B.C.E. – Peace of Callias

The Peace of Callias establishes a demilitarized zone between Greece and Persia on the coast of Asia Minor.

447 B.C.E. – The Parthenon

Pericles orders the building of a magnificent temple to Athena, Athens’ goddess and protector. The Parthenon is built on the Acropolis, the highest point in the city.


445 B.C.E. – Nehemiah

The appointed governor of Judah, Nehemiah, rebuilds the Old City walls of Jerusalem. Temple of Poseidon at Cape Sunium.

444 B.C.E. – Pericles and the Golden Age of Athens

Under the leadership of Pericles as General of Athens, the city enters a great age of building and supports an outstanding community of artists and philosophers.

The Celts, a tribe from northern Italy, dominate the British Isles.

440 B.C.E. – The Torah

The Torah becomes the moral essence of the Jewish state.

438 B.C.E. – Carrier Pigeons

Carrier pigeons used in Greece.

Consecration of the completed Parthenon.

433 B.C.E. – The Acropolis

Rebuilding of the Acropolis, Athens, designed by Ictinus and Callicrates; much of the sculpture by Phidias. The building process takes fifteen years.

431 B.C.E. – Second Peloponnesian War

Sparta, Corinth and Persia versus Athens Temple of Apollo in Rome.

428 -347 B.C.E. – Plato and the Academy of Athens


Life of Plato, Greek philosopher in his own right and student of Socrates, is devoted to expounding Socratic philosophy at the Academy of Athens which he founds.

Plato expounds the concept of ‘forms’. These were perfect, totally realized versions of everything (horses, trees etc.) against which the versions we actually see are but poor copies. Plato communicated this idea in his “Parable of the Cave,” in which men chained to face one direction see shadows on a cave wall and think the shadows to be true representations of the world, when in fact they are merely two dimensional, featureless flickering shadows. This idea is that we are all chained cavemen, the real world is flickering shadows, and the out-of-sight ‘forms’ casting the shadows are the real objects.

424 B.C.E. – Herodotus

Death of Herodotus, “Father of History” in Greece at age 61. Death of Artaxerxes, King of Persia.

410 B.C.E. – The Great Assembly

The Great Assembly is established in Jerusalem.

404 B.C.E. – Sparta Defeats Athens

The Peloponnesian War comes to an end when Sparta defeats Athens

401 B.C.E. – Marseilles

Marseilles flourishes as the west’s portal to Greek and Etruscan civilization.

400 B.C.E. – The Republic

Plato writes ‘The Republic’.

The site of London is first inhabited.

399 B.C.E. – Socrates

“And you too, judges, must face death with a good courage, and believe this as a truth, that no evil can happen to a good man, either in life, or after death. His fortunes are not neglected by the gods, and what has come to me today has not come by chance. I am persuaded that it is better for me to die now, and to be released from trouble… But now the time has come, and we must go hence; I to die and you to live. Whether life or death is better is known to God, and to God only.” – Socrates

Socrates, Greek philosopher, is put to death by poison at age 71 in Athens, Greece. Forced to commit suicide by poison for corrupting the youth of Athens with a process of enquiry known as ‘dialectic’ questioning whereby the truth was to arise by critically examining the statements of those around him.

396 B.C.E. – Carthaginians

Carthaginians destroy Messina, Sicily.

Capture of Etruscan Veii, 9 miles north of Rome.

390 B.C.E. – Sack of Rome

Under the leadership of Brennus a horde of predatory Gauls invade, occupy and sack Rome. Brennus, outraged with the ransom agreement hurled his sword onto the scale exhorting “Vae victis!”, “Woe to the vanquished.”

387 B.C.E. – Academy of Athens.

The Academy of Athens founded.

387 B.C.E. – The Pentateuch

The “Five Books of Moses” (Pentateuch) receive their definite form.

384 – 322 B.C.E. – Aristotle

Aristotle, Greek philosopher, dazzling thinker, wrote exhaustively on subjects ranging from astronomy to logic to politics to theology.

Up to the Renaissance, the Roman Catholic Church borrowed heavily from his brand of philosophy known as ‘Scholasticism.’

377 B.C.E. – Hippocrates

Death of Hippocrates at age 83. Considered to be the father of modern medicine.

367 B.C.E. – Plebeians

Plebeians gained the right to be consuls; the two chief magistrates, elected annually.

366.B.C.E. – Temple of Concordia


Temple of Concordia built in Rome.

356 B.C.E. – King Philip of Macedon

King Philip and his wife Olympias sire a son Alexander in Pella, Macedon.

353 B.C.E. – The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

Fifth Wonder of the Ancient World located in southwestern Turkey.

Queen Artemisia built it as a tribute to her husband and brother, King Mausolus on his death, giving birth to the word mausoleum.

347 B.C.E. – Plato

Death of Plato at age 80.

343 – 290 B.C.E. – The Sabines

The Sabines to the north and Samnites to south east conquered by Romans.

342 B.C.E. – Aristotle

Aristotle comes to Macedon to tutor the young Alexander (the Great).

340 B.C.E. – Demosthenes

Demosthenes tries in vain to persuade his fellow Athenians to resist Philip of Macedon’s attacks.

338 B.C.E. – Latium

Cities of Latium formed into a league under Roman control.

336 B.C.E. – Alexander the Great

Upon the death of his father (Philip), Alexander becomes king of Macedon. Conquering the Mediterranean region and Persian empire in 331 B.C.E. instituting the Hellenic language (Greek) as the “lingua franca” in the region. Merchants adopt Greek as the language of trade.

Alexander the Great carves an empire from Macedonia to the Indus River.


334 B.C.E. – Battle of Granicus

333 B.C.E. – Battle of Issus

Alexander the Great breaks the power of Darius the third of the Persian Empire at the battle of Issus. Greek culture spreads throughout the Middle East.

332 B.C.E. – Phoenicia

Phoenicia (Lebanon) conquered by Alexander the Great.

Jerusalem dominated by Alexander the Great.

331 B.C.E. – Battle of Gaugamela

Battle of Gaugamela, Persia. Forty thousand Macedonians against two hundred and fifty thousand Persians.

Alexander sacks and burns the Persian city of Persepolis.

329 B.C.E. – Hindu Kush

The armies of Alexander cross the Hindu Kush into Afghanistan.

327 B.C.E. – Roxana

Alexander marries Roxana, daughter of the Bactrian chief Oxyartes. Alexander the Great invades Indian territory to the Indus River.

326 B.C.E. – Alexander the Great

Alexander’s troops refuse to advance farther into India. The army begins its return journey.

324 B.C.E. – Persepolis


Alexander returns to Persepolis.

323 B.C.E. – The Diadochi

Alexander the Great falls ill with fever in Babylon and dies. After his death at age 32 and the collapse of his empire, his generals, the Diadochi vie for power.

322 B.C.E. – Aristotle

Death of Aristotle, Greek philosopher, at age 62 in Athens.

320 B.C.E. – Chandragupta Maurya

Chandragupta Maurya founds a dynasty that controls most of northern India.

313 B.C.E. – Ptolemy

Ptolemy the first of Egypt rules Jerusalem.

312 – 84 B.C.E. – The Seleucids

The Selecuid dynasty rules Persia until defeated by the Roman army in 84 B.C.E.

311 B.C.E. – The Navy

The first permanent naval organization is established by the Roman Empire with the appointment of navy commissioners. Its purpose to rout out pirates and also to prevent foes from becoming naval powers.

306 B.C.E. – Battle of Ipsus

Battle of Kings. Warring successors of Alexander the Great.

304 B.C.E. – Alexandria, “The Wonder of the Ancient World”

Alexander the Great’s companion-in-arms Ptolomy ‘Soter’ (Savior) lays claim to Egypt becomes the Greek God replacing the pharaohs.

Intended to be the civic “gift of the Gods”, Alexandria would be built on the alluvial delta of the River Nile on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt.

Alexandria was the most Greek of cities named after Alexander the Great who had united an immense empire under a common Macedonian culture and Greek language throughout the Mediterranean East.

The body of Alexander the Great was brought to Alexandria being finally interred in a massive mausoleum called “to soma”, ( Gk: the Body).

Ptolemy founded the Mouseion, the Museum which housed among other things, the multilingual Library which boasted housing “all the books (of consequence) that had ever been written”. A half million texts in all.

The Library was burned three times: accidently by Julius Caesar in 47 B.C.E., deliberately by Christians toward the end of the fourth century A.D. and finally in 642 A.D. by the forces of Caliph Omar.

301 B.C.E. – Palestine

Palestine taken by Ptolemy.

300 B.C.E. – The Huns

The Huns drive the Goths out of Romania. The Goths ask for protection and land in exchange for service in the Roman army. The Romans approve.

282 B.C.E. – Colossus of Rhodes

Sixth Wonder of the Ancient World.

The completion of the Colossus of Rhodes, a huge bronze statue built in honour of Zeus’ son Helios, the sun god to celebrate a military victory. Built straddling the harbor of the island of Rhodes in the Aegean Sea.

Destroyed by earthquake in 224 B.C.E.

270 B.C.E. – Lighthouse of Alexandria

Seventh Wonder of the Ancient World.

The completion of the lighthouse at Pharos, Alexandria, Egypt completed during the reign of King Ptolemy the Second.

The marble lighthouse stood 400 feet high guided ships into the harbor of Alexandria.

After 1,500 years as a working lighthouse it succumbed to an earthquake in the 14 century C.E.

264 – 241 B.C.E. – First Punic War

First Punic war, Rome against Carthage, ending in a Roman victory and the annexation of Sicily.

247 B.C.E. – 224 C.E. – The Parthians

The Parthians break away from the Selecuids and rule the Persian Empire until brought down by the Sassanids.

245 B.C.E – Ctesibius

Force-pump is invented by Greek inventor Ctesibius.

238 B.C.E. – Sardinia

Romans seize Sardinia from Carthage.

225 B.C.E. – Etruria

The Gauls are defeated near Telamon in Etruria.

224 B.C.E. – Colossus of Rhodes

The Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is destroyed by an earthquake.

222 B.C.E. – Lombardy

Roman conquest of Cisalpine Gaul (Lombardy, Italy). More conflict with Carthage, which was attempting to conquer Spain. Rome conquers northern Italy, including Mediolanum (Milan) Antigonus Doson of Macedonia takes possession of Sparta from Cleomenes, king of Sparta, who flees to Egypt.

221 B.C.E. – First Emperor of China

China is unified under the ‘First Emperor’, Qin Shi Huangdi.

219 B.C.E. – Second Punic War

Carthage versus Rome. Hannibal crosses the Alps by Little St Bernard Pass and invades Italy from the north, takes Turin.

218 B.C.E. – Hannibal

Hannibal defeats Publius Cornelius Scipio at Ticinus River winning a series of brilliant victories.

217 B.C.E. – Quintus Fabius

Rome appoints Quintus Fabius Maximus dictator.

Hannibal defeats Romans at Lake Trasimene.

216 B.C.E. – Battle at Cannae

Romans defeated at Cannae, with 50,000 killed.

Philip of Macedon makes an alliance with Hannibal.

215 B.C.E. – Great Wall of China



Emperor Zheng orders the building of the Great Wall of China, 1,400 miles long, to keep out invading northern tribes.

212 B.C.E. – Archimedes

Romans under Marcus Claudius Marcellus conquer and sack Syracuse; Archimedes killed during fighting.

211 B.C.E. – “Hannibal ante portas!”

Hannibal before the gates of Rome.

Roman armies in Spain under Publius Cornelius and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio defeated.

207 B.C.E. – Hasdrubal

After the defeat of his brother Hasdrubal on the Metaurus, Hannibal retires to southern Italy.

202 B.C.E. – End of the Second Punic War

Decisive victory of General Scipio Africanus Major over Hannibal at Zama.

200 B.C.E. – Second Macedonian War

Attica ravaged.

Inscription engraved on Rosetta Stone.

200 B.C.E. – Septuagint

Septuagint written in Alexandria.

198 B.C.E. – Antiochus of Syria

Syrian based Seleucid, Antiochus, takes Palestine from Egyptian Ptolemaic rule.

197 B.C.E. – Cynoscephelae

Romans under Flamius defeat Philip of Macedon at Cynoscephelae.

195 B.C.E. – Hannibal Flees

Hannibal flees to the protection of Antiochus of Syria.

193 B.C.E. – Concrete

Concrete is invented in Rome.

192 B.C.E. – Antiochus

Antiochus aided by Hannibal lands in Greece.

War between Sparta and Rome.

191 B.C.E. – Thermopylae

Antiochus defeated by the Romans at Thermopylae.

190 B.C.E. – Magnesia

Antiochus defeated by the Romans at Magnesia.

189 B.C.E. – Armenia

Hannibal defeated by Rhodian fleet at Eurymedon River. Armenia independent from Seleucid rule. Insurrections in Upper Egypt owing to exorbitant taxes.

188 B.C.E. – Peace of Apamea

Peace of Apamea confined the rule of the Seleucid king Antiochus the Great, ruler of Persia, to Asia.

185 B.C.E. – Scipio Africanus

Scipio Africanus goes into voluntary exile.

183 B.C.E. – Pisa and Parma

Pisa and Parma in northern Italy become Roman colonies.

182 B.C.E. – Hannibal Commits Suicide

Hannibal commits suicide in exile to avoid extradition by Rome.

175 – 165 B.C.E. – Antiochus Epiphanes

Antiochus Epiphanes sacks Jerusalem and erects an altar to Zeus in the Second Temple after plundering it.

172 B.C.E. – Perseus

War between Rome and Macedon. Roman army defeated by Perseus.

168 B.C.E. – Roman Domination

Perseus of Macedon defeated by Romans at Pydna.

Macedon placed under Roman governor; beginning of Roman world domination. Persecution of the Jews by Antiochus the Fourth. Desecration of the Temple at Jerusalem.


167 B.C.E. Maccabean Revolt

Maccabean revolt against Antiochus.

165 B.C.E. – The Hasmoneans

Judas Maccabaeus rededicates Temple of Jerusalem (see Hanukkah) after expelling the Syrians. Jewish autonomy is restored under the Hasmoneans.

147 B.C.E. – Corinth

Roman forces destroy Corinth.

War between Sparta and Achaea.

After a revolt, Greece becomes a Roman province.

146 B.C.E. – Third Punic War

The last battle of the three Punic wars between the Roman general Scipio and the Carthaginians. The Roman army destroys the powerful North African city of Carthage. Of the 500.000 inhabitants only 50,000 remain alive and are sold into slavery. The territory is annexed into the Roman Empire.

The victorious general, Publius Cornelius Scipio, was given the nickname Africanus. He brought back to Rome hundred of African wild animals, such as elephants, crocodiles and lions. After parading the animals through the streets, he included them in his gladiatorial games.

145 B.C.E. – The Roman Empire

The Roman Empire consists of seven provinces; Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, Gallia, Transalpina, Africa and Macedonia.

144 B.C.E. – Jonathan Maccabaeus

Judas’ successor Jonathan Maccabaeus is assassinated. Succeeded by Simon Maccabaeus who expels Syrians from Jerusalem.

134 B.C.E. – John Hyrcanus

Antiochus the Seventh Sidetes recaptures the city of Jerusalem and leaves the city to John Hyrcanus who depends on Antiochus.

133 B.C.E. – Tiberius Gracchus

Tiberius Gracchus suggested agrarian reforms and was murdered at the instigation of the Senate.

Roman province of Asia formed from the kingdom of Pergamum, bequeathed to Rome by the Attalid dynasty.

Asia Minor becomes eighth Roman province.

123 B.C.E. – Gaius Gracchus

Gaius Gracchus elected tribune and adopts reform policy of his brother, Tiberius. Gaius Gracchus is killed in a riot and his reforms abolished.

113 B.C.E. – The Cimbri

The Cimbri, an ancient Germanic tribe leaves Jutland, which is devastated by storms, and reach the Roman province of Noricum (Carinthia).

112 B.C.E. – Pharisees and Sadducees

Rise of the Pharisees and Sadducees in Palestine.

105 B.C.E. – Numidian War

War in Africa between Rome and Jugurtha, king of Numidia. Marius, assisted by Sulla, defeats Jugurtha.

103 B.C.E. – Teutone Tribe

Cimbri and Teutone tribes ally and invade Roman territory.

101 B.C.E. – Marius

Marius defeats the Teutones at Aquae Sexiae and the Cimbri at Vercellae. Marius elected consul for sixth time.

100 B.C.E. – 50 B.C.E. – Qumran

Qumran by the Dead Sea is first settled.

90 B.C.E. – Civil War in Rome

Civil war in Rome: Marius is driven out by Sulla. Social War; revolt by the city-states forces Rome to grant citizenship to all Latins.

89 B.C.E. – Sulla

The Roman army led by Sulla regains control.

88 B.C.E. – Athens Revolts

Risings against Roman rule at Athens.

87 B.C.E. – Mithridates

While Sulla was repelling an invasion of Greece by King Mithridates of Pontus (in Asia Minor), Marius seized power

82 B.C.E. – Reign of Terror

Sulla returned and established a dictatorship ruled by terror.

73 B.C.E. – Lucullus

Mithridates of Pontus renews war against Rome and is defeated by Lucullus.

72 B.C.E. – King Ariovistus

King Ariovistus of the Germanic tribe, the Suevi, crosses the Upper Rhine and invades Gaul.

71 B.C.E. – Spartacus

Spartacus leads an unsuccessful revolt of 40,000 slaves against Rome. The revolt is crushed by consuls Pompey and Crassus. As punishment, and deterrent, 6,000 are crucified along the main road leading into Rome.

70 B.C.E. – Pompey and Crassus

Sulla’s constitutional changes were reversed by Pompey and Crassus.

69 B.C.E. – Cleopatra

Cleopatra the Seventh is born in Egypt.

69 B.C.E. – Antipater

Dynastic war in Palestine. Hyrcanus is deposed; rise of the House of Antipater.

68 B.C.E. – Crete

Crete is captured by the Romans.

63 B.C.E. – Pompey

Defeated by Pompey, Mithridates commits suicide. Pompey enters Syria and completes the conquest of Palestine by capturing Jerusalem making it a part of the Roman province of Syria.

62 B.C.E. – Catilina

Catilina defeated and killed at Pistoria.

Founding of Florence, Italy.

61 B.C.E. – Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar, nephew of Marius, wins his first victory in Spain.


60 B.C.E. – First Triumvirate

The First Triumvirate was formed, an alliance between Pompey and the democratic leaders Crassus and Julius Caesar.

Roman colonies in Switzerland.

59 B.C.E. – Newspaper

Newspaper is invented by Roman dictator Julius Caesar

58 – 50 B.C.E. – Gallic Wars

Rome versus Celtic tribes of Gaul. Julius Caesar’s victory over Gaul.

55 B.C.E. – Normandy

Northern Gaul conquered by Julius Caesar; punitive expeditions sent to Britain.

54 B.C.E. – Julius Caesar invades Britain

When Julius Caesar invades Britain. Cassivellaunus, a powerful Belgic tribal leader in southern Britain, agrees to pay tribute to Rome.

53 B.C.E. – Carrhae

Crassus defeated and killed by Parthians at Carrhae.

52 B.C.E. – Pompey

Pompey becomes consul in Rome.

51 B.C.E. – Rhine

Julius Caesar conquers Gaul as far as the Rhine.

50 B.C.E. – Caesar vs. Pompey

Rivalry between Julius Caesar and Pompey for control of Rome.

49 B.C.E. – The Rubicon

Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon, returned to Italy where civil war between Caesar and Pompey’s senatorial party began. (“Alea jacta est”)

48 B.C.E. – Battle of Pharsalus

The Alexandrian War rages for six months. Julius Caesar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus.

47 B.C.E. – Library of Alexandria, Egypt

Library of Ptolemy in Alexandria, the largest archive of knowledge in the world, is accidentally destroyed by fire by Julius Caesar’s forces. As many as 100,000 ancient Greek and Roman texts are lost forever.

Pompey murdered in Egypt by order of Queen Cleopatra. Herod the Great governor of Galilee.

46 B.C.E. – Julian Calendar

Julius Caesar returns to Rome. Adoption of the Julian calendar with 365.25 days and the introduction of a leap year.

45 B.C.E. – Gaius Octavius

Julius Caesar, first dictator of Rome, adopts his nephew Gaius Octavius as heir.

44 B.C.E. – The Ides of March

Etruscan soothsayer Spurrina warns Julius Caesar to “beware the ides of March.” Julius Caesar’s dictatorship is ended by his assassination in the Roman Forum led by conspirators Brutus and Cassius Longinus.

43 B.C.E. – Second Triumvirate

Second Triumvirate formed by Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Gaius Octavius, now renamed Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus.

42 B.C.E. – Brutus and Cassius

Brutus and Cassius defeated by the triumvirs at Philippi and commit suicide.

40 B.C.E. – Herod the Great

Herod, at Rome, appointed king of Judaea.

38 B.C.E. – Mark Anthony

Mark Anthony returns to Egypt.

38 B.C.E. – King of the Jews

Herod returns from Rome where he was confirmed King of the Jews.

37 B.C.E. – The Capture of Jerusalem

Jerusalem is the capital of Roman client kingdom and undergoes a siege before being reclaimed by Herod the Great.

34 B.C.E. – Dalmatia

Dalmatia becomes a Roman province.

32 B.C.E. – Octavian

War between Octavian and Mark Antony.

31 B.C.E. – Battle of Actium

Roman Emperor Octavian defeats Egyptian rulers Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. Mark Anthony commits suicide.

30 B.C.E. – Cleopatra

Queen Cleopatra the Seventh of Egypt commits suicide by the poisonous venom of an.php. Rome annexes Egypt after the deaths of Mark Antony and Cleopatra.

27 B.C.E. – 14 C.E. Roman Emperor Augustus (Caesar Augustus)

The first Roman Emperor, Octavius named “Augustus”, although absolute ruler, his title was ‘princeps’ (first citizen).

The unrest following Julius Caesar’s assassination ended when Octavius took power as Caesar Augustus. The Roman Republic ends and the reign of Roman Emperors begins. Rome conquers Egypt, which they will rule for almost 700 years.

19 B.C.E. – Herod’s Temple

Herod expands the Temple Mount and rebuilds the Temple of Jerusalem as ‘Herod’s Temple’.

9 B.C.E. – Drusus and Tiberius

Roman army under Drusus and Tiberius penetrates Germania as far as the Elbe.

6 B.C.E. – Judea

Judea annexed by Rome.

5 B.C.E. – The Nativity

The Birth of Jesus of Nazareth in Bethlehem 6 miles south of Jerusalem in Judea.

4 B.C.E. – Death of Herod the Great

Death of Herod the Great in Jerusalem.

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