Arabic becomes the official language of Egypt.
Islam reaches Turkestan in central Asia.
Caliph al-Walid leads the Umayyad Dynasty to the height of its power. He orders the building of the Great Mosque in Damascus around 710.
Start of the Islamic conquest of the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Invaded by Muslims from North Africa under the Berber general Tariq Ibn Ziyad, who defeat the Visigoths and lends his name to Gibraltar. Arabic: Jebel Tariq.
Spanish Cordoba and Seville fall to Islam.
Umayyads cross the deserts of Mukran and invade Sind (south Pakistan).
Spanish Toledo falls to Islam.
Legislative program of Lombard King Liutprand.
The warrior Charles Martel, a ‘mayor of the palace’ rules France although he was never formally crowned.
Spanish Zaragossa falls to Islam.
The Ummayads build the Masjid al-Aqsa mosque.
Muslim armies take Spanish territory from the Visigoths pushing them further north to occupy the fertile region of Aquitania.
Much of the Iberian peninsula is under Islamic control.
Two Umayyad governors of al-Andulus extend Islamic authority over Narbonne.
Repulse of land and sea siege of Constantinople by Emperor Leo the Third. Islamic forces repelled. Christian Byzantine maintains hold on Anatolia.
The Anglo-Saxon missionary Boniface sets out to convert the Frisians, Saxons and Germans. He establishes the ritual of coronation which is imitated by one king after another from then on.
Establishment of Christian kingdom in the Asturias.
Greek ‘School’ of Alexandria moves to Syria.
Islamic forces sack Luxeul.
Issue of Ecloga code by Byzantine Emperor Leo the Third.
Leo the Third prohibits the use of icons in public worship, setting off a long-running dispute between Iconoclasts, who reject all images in churches, and Iconodules, who defend their use.
Election of the first independent Doge of Venice.
Revolts in Byzantine Italy.
Attacks by Lombard King Liutprand on Byzantin territories in Italy
Iconoclasm becomes official policy in the Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium.
“It would have come to pass that the whole world convert to Islam since it was barely Christian.”
The wave of Islamic expansionism washes the shores of North Africa engulfing ancient people with new theology. Spilling across the straits of Jabal Tariq and its promontory, to the mainland of Al-Andalus.
The tidal wave, gaining momentum from success forces the Visigoths north from the southern Iberian peninsula, squeezing through the Basque region in the Pyrenees mountain range and into Aquitania (the Land of Water).
Poitiers falling briefly into Islamic cultural influence in 732 AD. Before a Frank rally stemming the tide and forcing the wave south across the Pyrenees allowing Navarra, Aragon and Castille to levee.
But at Tours the resistance and resilience of Charles Martel and his freedom fighters forced the mighty Islamic engine to halt and revert to lands held and secured in Iberia. The ultimate benefactor of its Moslem tenants where music, literature, astrology and navigation would give rise to the richest and most powerful Roman Catholic empire. EspanaCharles Martel is proclaimed the Mayor of the Palace and de facto ruler of the Frankish
Realms. While on the Eastern front the sweep of the brotherhood of Islam is rattling the gates of Constantinople demanding unconditional surrender.
Death of The Venerable Bede, a benedictine monk who chronicled the history of England. Born in 672, this scholarly monk is considered the first English historian.
He writes that Easter has its roots in pagan Anglo-Saxon spring equinox festival, around March 20-21. The Spring festival called Eostre after a goddess of Spring and beauty. Saint Bede starts dating events by the designations B.C. (Before Christ) and A.D. Anno Domini (In the year of our Lord) from the birth of Jesus.
Parsis, a people descended from Persian refugees whose religion is Zoroastrianism, seek freedom from Muslim persecution until the tenth century.
Berbers revolt against the Umayyads and form independent Saharan kingdoms. Ajor victory of Byzantines over Arabs at Akroinon.
Death of Charles Martel.
John of Damascus dies.
The Abbasids take Jerusalem.
Revolutionaries led by Abu al’Abbas defeat Umayyad forces in Iran and northern Iraq.
The forces of the Umayyad Caliph Marwan are defeated and he is replaced with Abu al-‘Abbas as-Saffah, the first caliph of the ‘Abbasid Dynasty.
Non-Arabs are integrated into eastern Islamic armies.
Pepin the Third, son of Charles Martel, deposes the Merovingian King Childeric and is anointed the first king of the Franks by St Boniface, founding the Carolingian Dynasty.
The Carolingians ruled the Frankish kingdom from 751 to 987
The fall of Ravenna to the Lombard king Aistulf marks the end of Byzantine rule in Italy.
Abbasid Islamic army defeats T’ang Chinese at Talas in Central Asia. Muslims learn papermaking and wood-block printing from captured Chinese prisoners-of-war (in Samarkand).
Several grades of paper including ‘bird paper’, thin and light enough to be sent by carrier pigeon.
Martyrdom of St Boniface by Frisians.
Having crossed the Alps, Pope Stephen the Second anoints Pepin the Third, King of the Franks.
Byzantium takes papal lands in Sicily,
The Caliph Abu-Jafar, al–Mansur “the victorious” founds Baghdad making it the capital of the Islamic empire instead of Damascus, and establishes the Abbasid Dynasty with the help of the Persians.
Period of hard-line iconoclasm under Constantine the Fifth.
Pepin the Third defends Rome against invaders. Pope Stephen the Second crowns him king of France; Pepin gives territories to the pope establishing the Papal States in Italy setting a precedent for Church-appointed rulers in Europe, and gives the Roman Catholic Church actual political power.
Cordoba breaks away from the Abbasids. Establishment of independent emirate in Spain by Ummayad prince Abd al-Rahman. Revival of Umayyad rule in al-Andulus (Islamic Iberia).
Composition of forged ‘Donation of Constantine’ documents purporting to record massive grant of lands and rights to the papacy.
Abbasids take control of Tabaristan.
Foundation of the Round City of Baghdad as capital of Abbasid Caliphate.
Recurring plagues greatly reduce the population of Europe.
Death of Peppin, King of the Franks.
Final Frankish conquest of Aquitaine.
Pepin’s son Charles ascends to the throne of the Franks along with his older brother, Carloman, who dies shortly afterwards. The conquests of Charlemagne (Carlos Magnus; Charles the Great) versus Saxons, Lombards and Muslims in Spain.
First of Charlemagne’s campaigns against the Saxons in north-west Germany.
Charlemagne defeats the Lombards and becomes King of Lombardy in Northern Italy.
Defeat of Charlemagne’s army by the Basques at Roncevaux (Roncevailles).
Charlemagne’s expedition against Moors in Spain fails.
The Legend of Roland is born.
Offa, King of Mercia in western England builds the great earthwork known as Offa’s Dyke to protect his frontiers against the Welsh. Offa introduces the penny as a standard monetary unit in England.
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarazmi, an Arab mathematician who wrote the first book on algebra.
Beginning of Byzantine re-conquest of the Peloponnese.
In the reign of Constantine the Sixth, the Seventh Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church at Nicaea defends the use of icons in churches. Temporary end of iconoclasm but controversy continues.
Charlemagne annexes Bavaria.
Beginning of Shi’a Idrisid rule in Morocco, first fragmentation of the Abbasids.
First recorded attack of the Vikings on southeastern coast of England.
Charlemagne conquers the Avars of the Danube Valley.
Vikings long ships from Scandinavia raid England sacking the monasteries of Lindisfarne and Jarrow on the Northumbrian coast.
Charlemagne establishes his capital at Aachen, codifies laws and promotes a cultural revival. The Carolingian Renaissance includes schools for children. Charlemagne establishes his court and capital at Aachen and begins construction of a palace complex. Odo of Metz builds Charlemagne’s chapel at Aachen.
Muslims under Caliph Harun ar-Rashid defeat Byzantines (Greeks) at Heraclea, Anatolia (Turkey).
Charlemagne intervenes to save Pope Leo the Third from deposition. Establishment of scholarly centre at monastery of Studion in Constantinople by Abbot Theodore.
Pope Leo the Third crowns Charlemagne (Charles the Great) on Christmas Day as Emperor of the West. This event marks the beginning of the Carolingian Dynasty and the First Reich of the Holy Roman Empire.
Independent rule of Aghlabid dynasty over Tunisia, Malta, Sicily, and Algeria.