"I am a soldier of Christ. I must not fight." St Martin.
The iron-tipped moldboard plow is invented, helping to make agriculture more efficient.
Hun invasion through Caucasus allies Byzantium and Sassanians to fight common threat.
Issue of ‘Breviarium’ (Roman law code) by Visigothic King Alaric the Second.
Frankish conquest of the Visigothic kingdom in south-west Gaul under King Clovis.
Frankish kingdom divided into four on the death of King Clovis.
Axumite occupation of Yemen.
Composition of Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius while awaiting execution.
Foundation of Monte Cassino monastery by St Benedict and composition of his rule.Priscian writes his grammar.
Gradual penetration of Balkans by Slav tribes.
Death of Theodoric.
Death of Anthimus, Theodoric’s Greek doctor.
In a hollow at the foot of Mount Sinai Byzantine emperor Justinian builds a fortified monastery over the site of the legendary burning bush. The monastery was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and later rededicated to Saint Catherine. The siege castle was built over an earlier church and for security the main gate was walled up making the basket lift the only way in or out for goods and people.
Emperor Justinian temporarily recovers Italy, North Africa and parts of Spain.
Emperor Justinian orders the closing of the Academy of Athens which was founded in 387 B.C.E.
Promulgation by Justinian of first edition of the new Roman law code (Codex Iustinianus).
Byzantine Emperor Justinian sends Christian missionaries to Axum (Ethiopia)
Serious uprising against Justinian in Constantinople.
The church of Hagia Sophia (Sacred Wisdom) is built in Constantinople under the direction of Emperor Justinian. It has the world’s largest dome.
Emperor Justinian sends a large army to destroy the Vandals. Byzantine reconquest of Vandal Africa by general Belisarius. The last King of the Vandals, Gelimer, is brought back to Constantinople to be executed.
Death of King Cedric. First king of West Saxons. Founder of British Monarchy.
Byzantines control North Africa after their defeat of Vandal kingdom.
Byzantine occupation of Sicily.
The Franks conquer the Burgundian Kingdom in eastern Gaul.
Byzantine invasion of Italian mainland.
Alfred, king of the Britons, is killed in the Battle of Camlan.
Second Byzantine-Sassanian War under Emperor Justinian.
Silkworms are secretly brought back to Byzantium hidden in hollow canes by emissaries to China.
Silk production starts in Byzantium.
Foundation of English Settlements in Britain.
Buddhism reaches Japan.
Named after the Byzantine Emperor the Justinian Plague starting in Constantinople kills a quarter of the population of Europe by 544 and half by 594.
Nomadic Turks, led by Bumin, invade Central Asia from the east founding Turkestan. The displaced Avars push west to the Danube Valley. The Avars push the Slavs south of the Danube over the Balkan mountains and those who straggle toward the Adriatic Sea are captured by the very able Venetian sailors who ply their slave trade with Egypt. In a historical footnote Slav would give us the word slave.
After being fought back by native Britons, Germanic tribes once again begin to invade England, driving Britons west into Cornwall and the Welsh marches.
Occupation of Cartagena and south-eastern Spain by Byzantines.
End of Ostrogothic resistance in Italy.
St Columba founds the monastery at Iona after being sentenced to perpetual exile from his native Ireland. Iona becomes the mother church of Celtic Christians. His missionaries were responsible for converting the pagan Picts on the mainland of Scotland and even into northern England.
Pushed westwards by invading Avars the Germanic Lombards (Long-Beards) cross south of the Alps and found a kingdom around the river Po.
The Lombards overrun northern Italy making it their own.
The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is born in Mecca.
Axumites (Ethiopians) invade Hijaz but fail to take Mecca.
Renewed war between Byzantium and Persia.
From northwestern Germany, Lombard King Alboin, who had murdered his wife’s father and used his skull as a drinking mug, attacks the peoples of Venice but the skilled horsemen were not able to navigate the isolated islands of Venice.
The Catholic bishop of Altino made his way to the Venetian island of Torcello to escape the barbarians bringing with him a large part of the cities population.
Sassanian Persian occupation of Yemen.
Death of Cassiodorus.
Mohammad (pbuh) is orphaned by age six and is taken under the protection of his uncle, the chief of the clan.
Monte Cassino destroyed.
Fall of Sirmium, leading to invasion of Balkans by Avars and their Slav allies.
Sueve kingdom in north-west Spain taken over by Visigothic King Leovigild.
Conversion of Visigothic King Reccared to Catholicism.
Shortly after Gregory became a monk he saw some boys being sold as slaves in the marketplace of Rome. Struck by their white skins and blond hair they were being sold as Angles (English) to which he replied “Non Angli, sed angeli.” (Not Angles, but angels.) Learning they were from Deira in northeast England he remarked with conviction “From the wrath (de ira) of God they must be delivered. He set out for England only to return three days later by popular demand.
Made Pope in 590 against his will but no task was too small and set about standardizing the music for services. The haunting melodies becoming Gregorian chants.
Gregory begins the secular power of the papacy in Rome and alienates the Roman Church from Byzantine influence.
Pope Gregory formally identified Mary Magdalene with the prostitute of Luke 7:37-50.
Arrival of Columbanus and companions in Gaul.
Mohammad (pbuh) marries Hedija.
Gregory, the prior of a monastery in Rome, assigned Augustine the task of converting the English.
Augustine’s mission to England was fraught with trepidation. The reputation of pagan savages filled his company of forty monks with fear. His mission begins the conversion of the population of Kent.
Augustine establishes the first archbishopric at the cathedral of Canterbury becoming England’s first Archbishop of Canterbury and the primate of England’s Mother Church.
Beginning of extensive slave trade from sub-Saharan Africa to the Mediterranean.
Improvements in yokes and collars allow animals to pull heavier plows and loads. New methods of crop rotation increases production and population.