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1st Century

1 A.D. Anno Domini - Beginning of the Common Era

1 AD was based on a miscalculation by Dionysius Exiguus. Experts set the real time of birth
of Jesus of Nazareth as early as 5 B.C.E.



The Three Herods

Upon Herod the Great’s death his realm is divided between his wife and three sons; the rule
of the Tetrarchs. Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip, tetrarch of Ituraea and of
the region of Trachonitis and Lysanias as the tetrarch of Abilene.

Herod Antipas; Governor of Galilee and Peraea, east of the river Jordan.

Herod Archelaus; Herod’s son by a Samaritan wife was to be king in Jerusalem over Judaea,
Idumea and Samaria. This region included the Hellenised cities of Sebaste and Caesarea on
the coast.

Herod Philip; Philip received the northernmost territories of Gaulanites and Batanaea
province.

Salome’s inheritance; Two minor territories on either side of Herod Archelaus’ massive
province.


6 - Census of Quirinius

Census of Quirinius. Jerusalem becomes a part of the Roman province of Judaea, ruled by
procurators.


9 - Arminius

Germanic Cherusci tribes under Arminius wipe out three Roman legions under Varus in the
Teutoburg Forest. A blow to Roman power.


14 to 37 - Roman Emperor Tiberius

“Render unto Caesar that which is Caesar’s and unto God that which is God’s.” - Jesus of
Nazareth
Tiberius succeeds his father-in-law, Octavian Augustus, as Caesar.


26 - Sejanus, Praetorian Guard

Tiberius retires to Capri, leaving Sejanus, prefect of the Praetorian Guard, in charge of
Rome.


30 - John the Baptist

“But he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; he
shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire.”
- John the Baptist

John baptizes Jesus in the River Jordan.


31 - Herod Antipas

Herod Antipas, for the lust of his step-daughter, orders the beheading of John the Baptist.


32 - The Beatitudes

Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount was delivered to the waiting multitudes on the hillside near the
town of Tabgha in the vicinity of the city of Tiberius on the Sea of Galilee.

Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.

Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.

Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God.

Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness’ sake: for theirs is the kingdom of
heaven.
Blessed are ye, when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of
evil against you falsely, for my sake.

Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven.


33 - The Crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth

September 8th 1997, Pope John Paul 2 formally promulgated the Edito Typica
modifications.
“The Christian faith is not a ‘religion of the book’. Christianity is the religion of the ‘Word’ of
God, a word which is “not a written and mute word, but the Word which is incarnate and living.”

Jesus the Christ, the Word incarnate.


37 to 41 - Roman Emperor Gaius Caesar (Caligula)

Caligula succeeds his adopted uncle Tiberius as Caesar. Ever suspicious, Caligula has his
own mother put to death. Praetorian Guard Sejanus would be given the task.


41 to 54 - Roman Emperor Claudius

After three years of tyranny, Caligula is assassinated by the Praetorian Guard Sejanus,
succeeded by Claudius. Claudius expels the Jews from Rome.


43 - Britannia

Under the rule of Claudius, forty thousand Roman soldiers arrive in Britannia to conquer
and colonize.

Britons under Caractacus defeated at Medway.

Londunium founded.


44 - Herod Agrippa

‘the angel of the Lord smote him, because he gave not to God the glory: and he was eaten
of worms, and gave up the ghost’
. - Acts of the Apostles 12:2

James, the brother of John dies at the hands of Herod Agrippa in Jerusalem. Herod
Agrippa, king of the Jews, dies from an intestinal complaint.


50 - Council of Jerusalem

Council of Jerusalem.


52 - Paris

The foundations of a settlement called Lutetia, meaning “marshy place” by the invading
Roman army, would in time be named after the Parisii tribe of Celtic peoples which occupied
the territory.


54 to 68 - Roman Emperor Nero

Nero, stepson and heir of Emperor Claudius, comes to power after Nero’s mother kills her
husband Claudius. Increasingly cruel and unstable he orders the execution of his mother.

Accused of killing his half brother Brittanicus, his mother Agrappina, his wife Octavia and
his pregnant wife.
Fire destroys two thirds of Rome. The emperor Nero blames a religious sect ‘the Christians’
and has many put to death. It was the first persecution of Christians by Rome.

Debasement of the silver derarius to pay for his new palatial building project after the
burning of Rome. Eventually he has to take his own life.


61 - Boadicea, Boudicca - Queen of the Iceni

“Though a woman, my resolution is fixed: the men, if they please, may survive with infamy,
and live in bondage.”
Boadicea, 60 AD

On the death of King Prasutagus, a tributary of the Romans, the territory of the Iceni (native
Britons) was violently annexed.

Boudicca was scourged and her daughters raped.

Boudicca raises the whole South-East of England in revolt against the brutality of Roman
rule.

Before the main Roman armies could return from their campaigns in Wales, she burned
Londinium (London), Verulamium (St Albans), and Camulodunum (Colchester).

The Romans under governor Suetonius Paulinus defeated the Britons between London and
Chester where they were virtually annihilated. Boudicca committed suicide by poison.


62 - The Gospel according to St Mark

Saint Mark writes the first of the four Gospels.


65 - St Paul

“Study to shew thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not be ashamed,
rightly dividing the word of truth.
St Paul’s second epistle unto Timotheus, ordained the first
bishop of the church of the Ephesians, written from Rome, when Paul was brought before
Nero the second time.“I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the
faith.”
Around 65 C.E. Paul was beheaded in Rome and therein lies his bones.


66 - Jewish Revolt

The Jewish Revolt in Judea is launched.

First Jewish-Roman war.


68 to 69 - Year of Four Emperors

The death of Roman Emperor Nero in 68 was also the death knell for Jerusalem as the
power vacuum created opportunities for his generals; Galba, Otho, Vitellius and finally
Vespasian.


68 to 69 - Roman Emperor Galba


69 - Roman Emperor Otho


69 - Roman Emperor Vitellius


69 to 79 - Roman Emperor Vespasian


69 - Dead Sea Scrolls

In the wake of Roman retaliation, the Essenes hide the “Dead Sea Scrolls” in a cave near
Qumran on the Dead Sea.


70 - The Fall of Jerusalem and the Destruction of the Temple

“There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.”
Jesus of Nazareth: Matthew 24:2, Mark 13:2, Luke 21:6

The Temple David desired to build but was forbidden by God. His son, Solomon would tax
the efforts and wealth of his people to build the Temple. Herod the Great spent great wealth to
enlarge and embellish the Temple in Jerusalem.

The Jews rebel against the Roman rule in Judea. Roman armies under Titus, son of
Vespasian, besieges and sacks Jerusalem, destroying the Temple on Tisha B’Av. Sanhedrin
relocated to Yavne, (see Council of Jamnia) crushes the rebellion and expels Jews from the
province launching the Diaspora; the scattering of Jews throughout the world. The sacrificial
altar for atonement ceases to exist. The Western Wall is all that remains.

Jerusalem, the umbilical chord between the cosmic and the terrestrial; the spiritual and the
temporal; the navel of the world. At this juncture is the rock “Evan Shatia”.... the place where
Heaven and Earth meet. Consecrated ground to half the world.


72 to 80 - The Colosseum

The marsh between the river Tiber and the emperor’s palace had to be drained to
accommodate the Flavian Amphitheater that Emperor Vespasian ordered built. The
magnificent structure that was completed in only eight years would seat fifty thousand
spectators with standing room for another four thousand slaves. The Colosseum was paid for
with the booty recovered from the sack of Jerusalem and built by Jewish slaves.

Emperor Vespasian dies in 79 AD and the arena is inaugurated by Emperor Titus in 80 AD.
The outer walls stood over 165 feet high and covered an area 620 feet by 515 feet. The
velarium was an immense awning, which on special occasions could be spread over the
Colosseum to protect spectators from the sun.

It was called the Colosseum because it was built next to the colossal 90 foot tall statue of
Emperor Nero.


73 - Masada

The mountain fortress of Masada is the final hold out of Jewish freedom fighters, the sicarii,
who had fled Jerusalem after an unsuccessful bid for power, ensconced themselves in Herod
the Great’s palatial fortress, Herodium, on the rock of Masada. The general ordered Masada
surrounded to prevent any attempt at escape and a ramp of sand and stone built to surmount
the wall. Before the ramp was complete the inhabitants of Masada formed a pact to die in a
manner of their own choosing rather than be at the mercy of an overzealous victor. They could
not bear the thoughts of their wives raped, their children sold into slavery. It was better for all to
die swiftly than suffer the cruel agonies of crucifixion, or worse, humiliation and degradation at
the discretion of your pagan masters for the rest of your lives. Ten were chosen to execute the
nine hundred and fifty men, women and children. Then one to kill the nine. The one would fall
on his sword.

By the time the Romans had completed the earthen ramp scaling to the top of the fortress
wall there was nothing to kill but flies. Only two women and five children escaped the slaughter
to tell the tale.


79 to 81 - Roman Emperor Titus


81 to 96 - Roman Emperor Domitian


84 - Battle of Mons Graupius

Roman general Agricola versus Scottish tribes.


95 - Saint John’s Revelation

Exiled to the Greek isle of Patmos, St John the Divine dictates the Book of Revelation
which becomes the final chapter in the New Testament.


96 to 98 - Roman Emperor Nerva

September 18, Emperor Domitian is murdered by praetorian prefects and, allegedly, by his
own wife.

The Roman Empire enjoys a golden age under the Flavian and Antonine emperors; Nerva,
Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Pius, and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. To 180 AD.


98 - Roman Emperor Trajan

A good general and popular emperor, Trajan made many social reforms. He also conquers
Dacia (northern Romania) making it a Roman Province.